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Raspberry Pi Pico Weather Station Using Dht11 Sensor

Introduction

In this tutorial we will learn How to make Raspberry Pi Pico Weather Station  using Dht11 Humidity Sensor, weather station to monitor the temperature and humidity in your home or office We will use 16×2 LCD Display and display the DHT11 temperature and Humidity value on it.

Raspberry Pi Pico Weather Station

The DHT11 Sensor is aa cheap cost digital temperature and humidity sensor.we used Raspberry Pi Pico board to read the temperature, humidity data of Dht11 Sensor. The data is displayed on a 16×2 LCD screen.

Materials Required

  • Raspberry Pi Pico
  • 16×2 LCD
  • DHT11 Temperature and Humidity Sensor
  • Jumper Wires

Schematics for Raspberry Pi Pico Weather Station

The hardware setup and Mapping guide for DHT11 Sensor with Raspberry Pi Pico board & 16×2 LCD is super easy. The connection diagram is given Below.

Raspberry pi pico dht11 Weather stationConnect the DHT11 digital output pin to GP15 of Raspberry Pi Pico Board. Connect the SCL & SDA pin of OLED Display to Raspberry Pi Pico GP27 & GP26 Pin. Supply DHT11 & 16×2 Display with VBUS(SV) VCC & Connect their GND(-) pins to Raspberry Pi Pico GND(-) Pin.

LCD -> Pico

  • GND -> GND
  • VCC -> VBUS(SV)
  • SDA -> GP26
  • SCL -> GP27

DHT11  -> Pico

  • Vcc(+) -> 3.3V
  • Out(o) -> GP15
  • GND(-)  -> GND

Source Code for Raspberry Pi Pico Weather Station

The code comprises of 4 parts:

  1. dht.py
  2. lcd_api.py
  3. pico_i2c_lcd.py
  4. main.py

dht.py

import array
import micropython
import utime
from machine import Pin
from micropython import const

class InvalidChecksum(Exception):
    pass

class InvalidPulseCount(Exception):
    pass

MAX_UNCHANGED = const(100)
MIN_INTERVAL_US = const(200000)
HIGH_LEVEL = const(50)
EXPECTED_PULSES = const(84)

class DHT11:
    _temperature: float
    _humidity: float

    def __init__(self, pin):
        self._pin = pin
        self._last_measure = utime.ticks_us()
        self._temperature = -1
        self._humidity = -1

    def measure(self):
        current_ticks = utime.ticks_us()
        if utime.ticks_diff(current_ticks, self._last_measure) < MIN_INTERVAL_US and (
            self._temperature > -1 or self._humidity > -1
        ):
            # Less than a second since last read, which is too soon according
            # to the datasheet
            return

        self._send_init_signal()
        pulses = self._capture_pulses()
        buffer = self._convert_pulses_to_buffer(pulses)
        self._verify_checksum(buffer)

        self._humidity = buffer[0] + buffer[1] / 10
        self._temperature = buffer[2] + buffer[3] / 10
        self._last_measure = utime.ticks_us()

    @property
    def humidity(self):
        self.measure()
        return self._humidity

    @property
    def temperature(self):
        self.measure()
        return self._temperature

    def _send_init_signal(self):
        self._pin.init(Pin.OUT, Pin.PULL_DOWN)
        self._pin.value(1)
        utime.sleep_ms(50)
        self._pin.value(0)
        utime.sleep_ms(18)

    @micropython.native
    def _capture_pulses(self):
        pin = self._pin
        pin.init(Pin.IN, Pin.PULL_UP)

        val = 1
        idx = 0
        transitions = bytearray(EXPECTED_PULSES)
        unchanged = 0
        timestamp = utime.ticks_us()

        while unchanged < MAX_UNCHANGED:
            if val != pin.value():
                if idx >= EXPECTED_PULSES:
                    raise InvalidPulseCount(
                        "Got more than {} pulses".format(EXPECTED_PULSES)
                    )
                now = utime.ticks_us()
                transitions[idx] = now - timestamp
                timestamp = now
                idx += 1

                val = 1 - val
                unchanged = 0
            else:
                unchanged += 1
        pin.init(Pin.OUT, Pin.PULL_DOWN)
        if idx != EXPECTED_PULSES:
            raise InvalidPulseCount(
                "Expected {} but got {} pulses".format(EXPECTED_PULSES, idx)
            )
        return transitions[4:]

    def _convert_pulses_to_buffer(self, pulses):
        """Convert a list of 80 pulses into a 5 byte buffer
        The resulting 5 bytes in the buffer will be:
            0: Integral relative humidity data
            1: Decimal relative humidity data
            2: Integral temperature data
            3: Decimal temperature data
            4: Checksum
        """
        # Convert the pulses to 40 bits
        binary = 0
        for idx in range(0, len(pulses), 2):
            binary = binary << 1 | int(pulses[idx] > HIGH_LEVEL)

        # Split into 5 bytes
        buffer = array.array("B")
        for shift in range(4, -1, -1):
            buffer.append(binary >> shift * 8 & 0xFF)
        return buffer

    def _verify_checksum(self, buffer):
        # Calculate checksum
        checksum = 0
        for buf in buffer[0:4]:
            checksum += buf
        if checksum & 0xFF != buffer[4]:
            raise InvalidChecksum()
import time

class LcdApi:

    LCD_CLR = 0x01              # DB0: clear display
    LCD_HOME = 0x02             # DB1: return to home position

    LCD_ENTRY_MODE = 0x04       # DB2: set entry mode
    LCD_ENTRY_INC = 0x02        # --DB1: increment
    LCD_ENTRY_SHIFT = 0x01      # --DB0: shift

    LCD_ON_CTRL = 0x08          # DB3: turn lcd/cursor on
    LCD_ON_DISPLAY = 0x04       # --DB2: turn display on
    LCD_ON_CURSOR = 0x02        # --DB1: turn cursor on
    LCD_ON_BLINK = 0x01         # --DB0: blinking cursor

    LCD_MOVE = 0x10             # DB4: move cursor/display
    LCD_MOVE_DISP = 0x08        # --DB3: move display (0-> move cursor)
    LCD_MOVE_RIGHT = 0x04       # --DB2: move right (0-> left)

    LCD_FUNCTION = 0x20         # DB5: function set
    LCD_FUNCTION_8BIT = 0x10    # --DB4: set 8BIT mode (0->4BIT mode)
    LCD_FUNCTION_2LINES = 0x08  # --DB3: two lines (0->one line)
    LCD_FUNCTION_10DOTS = 0x04  # --DB2: 5x10 font (0->5x7 font)
    LCD_FUNCTION_RESET = 0x30   # See "Initializing by Instruction" section

    LCD_CGRAM = 0x40            # DB6: set CG RAM address
    LCD_DDRAM = 0x80            # DB7: set DD RAM address

    LCD_RS_CMD = 0
    LCD_RS_DATA = 1

    LCD_RW_WRITE = 0
    LCD_RW_READ = 1

    def __init__(self, num_lines, num_columns):
        self.num_lines = num_lines
        if self.num_lines > 4:
            self.num_lines = 4
        self.num_columns = num_columns
        if self.num_columns > 40:
            self.num_columns = 40
        self.cursor_x = 0
        self.cursor_y = 0
        self.implied_newline = False
        self.backlight = True
        self.display_off()
        self.backlight_on()
        self.clear()
        self.hal_write_command(self.LCD_ENTRY_MODE | self.LCD_ENTRY_INC)
        self.hide_cursor()
        self.display_on()

    def clear(self):
        """Clears the LCD display and moves the cursor to the top left
        corner.
        """
        self.hal_write_command(self.LCD_CLR)
        self.hal_write_command(self.LCD_HOME)
        self.cursor_x = 0
        self.cursor_y = 0

    def show_cursor(self):
        """Causes the cursor to be made visible."""
        self.hal_write_command(self.LCD_ON_CTRL | self.LCD_ON_DISPLAY |
                               self.LCD_ON_CURSOR)

    def hide_cursor(self):
        """Causes the cursor to be hidden."""
        self.hal_write_command(self.LCD_ON_CTRL | self.LCD_ON_DISPLAY)

    def blink_cursor_on(self):
        """Turns on the cursor, and makes it blink."""
        self.hal_write_command(self.LCD_ON_CTRL | self.LCD_ON_DISPLAY |
                               self.LCD_ON_CURSOR | self.LCD_ON_BLINK)

    def blink_cursor_off(self):
        """Turns on the cursor, and makes it no blink (i.e. be solid)."""
        self.hal_write_command(self.LCD_ON_CTRL | self.LCD_ON_DISPLAY |
                               self.LCD_ON_CURSOR)

    def display_on(self):
        """Turns on (i.e. unblanks) the LCD."""
        self.hal_write_command(self.LCD_ON_CTRL | self.LCD_ON_DISPLAY)

    def display_off(self):
        """Turns off (i.e. blanks) the LCD."""
        self.hal_write_command(self.LCD_ON_CTRL)

    def backlight_on(self):
        """Turns the backlight on.
        This isn't really an LCD command, but some modules have backlight
        controls, so this allows the hal to pass through the command.
        """
        self.backlight = True
        self.hal_backlight_on()

    def backlight_off(self):
        """Turns the backlight off.
        This isn't really an LCD command, but some modules have backlight
        controls, so this allows the hal to pass through the command.
        """
        self.backlight = False
        self.hal_backlight_off()

    def move_to(self, cursor_x, cursor_y):
        """Moves the cursor position to the indicated position. The cursor
        position is zero based (i.e. cursor_x == 0 indicates first column).
        """
        self.cursor_x = cursor_x
        self.cursor_y = cursor_y
        addr = cursor_x & 0x3f
        if cursor_y & 1:
            addr += 0x40    # Lines 1 & 3 add 0x40
        if cursor_y & 2:    # Lines 2 & 3 add number of columns
            addr += self.num_columns
        self.hal_write_command(self.LCD_DDRAM | addr)

    def putchar(self, char):
        """Writes the indicated character to the LCD at the current cursor
        position, and advances the cursor by one position.
        """
        if char == '\n':
            if self.implied_newline:
                # self.implied_newline means we advanced due to a wraparound,
                # so if we get a newline right after that we ignore it.
                pass
            else:
                self.cursor_x = self.num_columns
        else:
            self.hal_write_data(ord(char))
            self.cursor_x += 1
        if self.cursor_x >= self.num_columns:
            self.cursor_x = 0
            self.cursor_y += 1
            self.implied_newline = (char != '\n')
        if self.cursor_y >= self.num_lines:
            self.cursor_y = 0
        self.move_to(self.cursor_x, self.cursor_y)

    def putstr(self, string):
        """Write the indicated string to the LCD at the current cursor
        position and advances the cursor position appropriately.
        """
        for char in string:
            self.putchar(char)

    def custom_char(self, location, charmap):
        """Write a character to one of the 8 CGRAM locations, available
        as chr(0) through chr(7).
        """
        location &= 0x7
        self.hal_write_command(self.LCD_CGRAM | (location << 3))
        self.hal_sleep_us(40)
        for i in range(8):
            self.hal_write_data(charmap[i])
            self.hal_sleep_us(40)
        self.move_to(self.cursor_x, self.cursor_y)

    def hal_backlight_on(self):
        """Allows the hal layer to turn the backlight on.
        If desired, a derived HAL class will implement this function.
        """
        pass

    def hal_backlight_off(self):
        """Allows the hal layer to turn the backlight off.
        If desired, a derived HAL class will implement this function.
        """
        pass

    def hal_write_command(self, cmd):
        """Write a command to the LCD.
        It is expected that a derived HAL class will implement this
        function.
        """
        raise NotImplementedError

    def hal_write_data(self, data):
        """Write data to the LCD.
        It is expected that a derived HAL class will implement this
        function.
        """
        raise NotImplementedError

    def hal_sleep_us(self, usecs):
        """Sleep for some time (given in microseconds)."""
        time.sleep_us(usecs)
from lcd_api import LcdApi
from machine import I2C
from time import sleep_ms

DEFAULT_I2C_ADDR = 0x27

# Defines shifts or masks for the various LCD line attached to the PCF8574

MASK_RS = 0x01
MASK_RW = 0x02
MASK_E = 0x04
SHIFT_BACKLIGHT = 3
SHIFT_DATA = 4


class I2cLcd(LcdApi):
    """Implements a character based lcd connected via PCF8574 on i2c."""

    def __init__(self, i2c, i2c_addr, num_lines, num_columns):
        self.i2c = i2c
        self.i2c_addr = i2c_addr
        self.i2c.writeto(self.i2c_addr, bytearray([0]))
        sleep_ms(20)   # Allow LCD time to powerup
        # Send reset 3 times
        self.hal_write_init_nibble(self.LCD_FUNCTION_RESET)
        sleep_ms(5)    # need to delay at least 4.1 msec
        self.hal_write_init_nibble(self.LCD_FUNCTION_RESET)
        sleep_ms(1)
        self.hal_write_init_nibble(self.LCD_FUNCTION_RESET)
        sleep_ms(1)
        # Put LCD into 4 bit mode
        self.hal_write_init_nibble(self.LCD_FUNCTION)
        sleep_ms(1)
        LcdApi.__init__(self, num_lines, num_columns)
        cmd = self.LCD_FUNCTION
        if num_lines > 1:
            cmd |= self.LCD_FUNCTION_2LINES
        self.hal_write_command(cmd)

    def hal_write_init_nibble(self, nibble):
        """Writes an initialization nibble to the LCD.
        This particular function is only used during intiialization.
        """
        byte = ((nibble >> 4) & 0x0f) << SHIFT_DATA
        self.i2c.writeto(self.i2c_addr, bytearray([byte | MASK_E]))
        self.i2c.writeto(self.i2c_addr, bytearray([byte]))

    def hal_backlight_on(self):
        """Allows the hal layer to turn the backlight on."""
        self.i2c.writeto(self.i2c_addr, bytearray([1 << SHIFT_BACKLIGHT]))

    def hal_backlight_off(self):
        """Allows the hal layer to turn the backlight off."""
        self.i2c.writeto(self.i2c_addr, bytearray([0]))

    def hal_write_command(self, cmd):
        """Writes a command to the LCD.
        Data is latched on the falling edge of E.
        """
        byte = ((self.backlight << SHIFT_BACKLIGHT) | (((cmd >> 4) & 0x0f) << SHIFT_DATA))
        self.i2c.writeto(self.i2c_addr, bytearray([byte | MASK_E]))
        self.i2c.writeto(self.i2c_addr, bytearray([byte]))
        byte = ((self.backlight << SHIFT_BACKLIGHT) | ((cmd & 0x0f) << SHIFT_DATA))
        self.i2c.writeto(self.i2c_addr, bytearray([byte | MASK_E]))
        self.i2c.writeto(self.i2c_addr, bytearray([byte]))
        if cmd <= 3:
            # The home and clear commands require a worst case delay of 4.1 msec
            sleep_ms(5)

    def hal_write_data(self, data):
        """Write data to the LCD."""
        byte = (MASK_RS | (self.backlight << SHIFT_BACKLIGHT) | (((data >> 4) & 0x0f) << SHIFT_DATA))
        self.i2c.writeto(self.i2c_addr, bytearray([byte | MASK_E]))
        self.i2c.writeto(self.i2c_addr, bytearray([byte]))
        byte = (MASK_RS | (self.backlight << SHIFT_BACKLIGHT) | ((data & 0x0f) << SHIFT_DATA))
        self.i2c.writeto(self.i2c_addr, bytearray([byte | MASK_E]))
        self.i2c.writeto(self.i2c_addr, bytearray([byte]))
from machine import Pin
import utime as time
from pico_i2c_lcd import I2cLcd
from machine import I2C
from dht import DHT11, InvalidChecksum

i2c = I2C(id=1,scl=Pin(27),sda=Pin(26),freq=100000)
lcd = I2cLcd(i2c, 0x27, 2, 16)

while True:
    time.sleep(1)
    pin = Pin(15, Pin.OUT, Pin.PULL_DOWN)
    sensor = DHT11(pin)
    t  = (sensor.temperature)
    h = (sensor.humidity)
    print("Temperature: {}".format(sensor.temperature))
    print("Humidity: {}".format(sensor.humidity))
    
    time.sleep(1)
    lcd.clear()
    lcd.move_to(0,0)
    lcd.putstr('Temp :')
    lcd.move_to(7,0)
    lcd.putstr(str(t)+" C")
    lcd.move_to(0,1)
    lcd.putstr('Humi :')
    lcd.move_to(7,1)
    lcd.putstr(str(h)+" %")

 

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