So, you want to Build a Drone ? Great! Over the past few years, radio controlled Drones have been becoming ever more popular in industries. In this Tutorial, I’m going to be explaining the different Components and Tools required for a Drones, and how to build one, Have fun building your own Drone, or I hope this tutorial will be a great starting point for you!
In this Tutorial we will learn about.
- The Parts List
- Choosing Components
- How It Works
- Learning To Fly
I have seen that many people have to think which parts are good for drone to buy and where to buy controller, frame, motors etc.
Here i tell you, its very easy, i am also bigneer but seems easy to build drone. As per my need i used to make a drone with these (below) components.
- A frame (f450) easy to find in your local market
- A flight controller (APM, Pixhawk, kk board) mine is APM 2.8 flightcontroller
- 4pcs BLDC (kv means rotation per volt. 1000 means 1000/volt).
- 4pcs ESC which means electronic speed controller to controll the speed of your motor.
- 4 pair of Propeller blades.
- Lipo battery ( more mah means more capacity ).
- RC fly sky i6 Transmitter is one of the best Transmitter for bigneers. It can upgraded from 6 channel to 10 channel (I also discuss what is channel in below Article) And it has also telemetry feature.
- Ublox neo 6/7/8(as per your choice) GPS with external compass.
- Power module which helps the flight controller to sense the voltage and current of the battery.
- Lipo charger. Don’t go for cheapest it will kill your battery slowly.
- A pc or a laptop with Mission planner software.
- Video transmitter and receiver. Etc…
- The Required Parts List For Build a Drone
Below are all the Parts, tools and equipment that we will need to build a Drone
Components Required for Build a Drone
- ESCs (Electronic Speed Controllers)_______https://amzn.to/3jhDimd
- Flight Controller_________https://amzn.to/3DTNhaO
- Motors & Propellers: The motors and propellers provide the thrust and the lift for the aircraft.
- ESCs (Electronic Speed Controllers): The ESCs take the signals from the flight controller and adjust the speed of the motors.
- The Battery: The battery provides the power supply to all the components.
- Frame: The frame provides the structure and rigidity and it’s where all the components will be mounted onto.
- Flight Controller: The flight controller manipulates the RPM of the individual motors in response to the users input. If you tell it to go forward, the flight controller will adjust the RPM of the rear motors so that it goes forward.
- Transmitter & Receiver: The transmitter and receiver are what allow you to control the movements of the quadcopter.
- Lipo Battery charger ________https://amzn.to/3xvxWw3
- Low voltage battery alarm_________https://amzn.to/3DVqyee
- Mixed Items
- Pin headers
- XT60 connectors
- Heat shrink tubing
- Zip ties
- Battery straps
- Tools Used
- Soldering station/soldering iron
- Wire strippers
- Wire cutters
Choosing Components To Build a Drone
If You want a high quality and reliable Parts for the drone main components, Good places to buy Drone Parts from:
Beware of imitation because due to the rapid increase in the market, many imitation products are being sold such as the motors ESCs and batteries. Most of the sellers on Amazon sell clones and low quality but not all of them. Before look at the best drone motors and propulsion systems manufacturers, here is an video on how Brushless motors work
There are two types of motors: brushed and brushless Motors, Generally we use brushed motors On the smallest quadcopter, micro drones and toy drones. and brushless motors used to larger Model (such as racing drones, and any bigger models) and UAVs will use brushless motors, as it can carry the extra weight of the electronics parts. Brushless drone motors also require an ESC (electronic speed controller) to operate motors. How Brushless Motor Works ?
According to the general consensus:
- Taller stator = more power at higher RPM
- Wider stator = more torque at lower RPM
You can watch the following video How Brushless Motor Works from How to mechatronics
ESC (Electronic Speed Controller)
ESC (Electronic Speed Controller) controls the brushless motor movement and regulates the speed, acceleration and deceleration of the motors. or allow drone flight controllers to control and adjust the speed of the BLDC motors, The ESC is responsible for controlling each motor speed. i suggest you to buy an ESC that has a value of at least 5A above the Max current draw of the motors.
To understand ESC in one line the ESCs receive signals from the flight controller it changes the amount of power given to each of the motors Speed and also provide monitoring and fault tolerance on the motors.
RC Car, helicopter, Drones almost exclusively use LiPo (Lithium Polymer) batteries offer the best combination of energy density, power density. LiPo batteries have become the most common high performance R/C battery and are used in cars, boats, planes, , Drones and more.
I highly recommend you to read this article : 15 Things Every LiPo Battery User Should Know.
A transmitter is a long-term investment, A Drone Radio Transmitter is an electronic device that uses radio signals to transmit Data wirelessly via radio frequency over to the Radio Receiver. Transmitter is One Time investment devices, it is okay to spend a bit more on a good quality Radio Transmitter and Receiver so please Buy Good quality Transmitter otherwise if your transmitter fails on you while you’re flying, your aircraft can drop out of the sky and potentially injure or even kill someone .
In other words, it’s the device that translates the pilot’s commands into the movement of the drone.
Radio Transmitter transmits commands via channels. Each channel is an individual action being sent to the Drones.
Throttle, Yaw, Pitch and Roll are the four main inputs required to control the Drone. Each of them uses one channel, so there is minimum of four channels required for any drone or quad.
- Roll. Moves your drone left or right in the air, literally “rolling” your drone.
- Pitch. Tilts your drone forward or backward.
- Yaw. Rotates your drone clockwise or counterclockwise, allowing you to make circles or patterns in the air.
- Throttle. Controls the amount of power sent to your drone, which makes the drone go faster or slower.
A Radio Receiver is the device capable of receiving commands from the Radio Transmitter, interpreting the signal via the flight controller where those commands are converted into specific actions controlling the aircraft directions.
The flight controller manipulates the RPM of the individual motors in response to the users input. If you tell it to go forward, the flight controller will adjust the RPM of the rear motors so that it goes forward.
The frame of a quadcopter is the main structure, There are many different styles of frame. frame styles are common: acro and FPV. Acro frames are what’s known as ‘true X’ frames because Acro arm shape like X shape, which a motor is mounted to each end of the arms Knowing the Total Weight and Frame Size.
The total weight of the Drone should include all the Electronics tools and components: frame, FC, ESC, motors, propellers, RX, LiPo batter, and so on. Builders
Bigneers Tips: When you choosing a frame it is important to check that the mounting for the Flight Controller and the motors shaft match your choice for these components.
CW and CCW Motors
You will sometimes see brushless motors labelled as CW Motor and CCW. Motor They stand for “ClockWise” and “Counter-ClockWise”.
CCW- Counterclockwise refers to rotation in the opposite direction as that of the hands on a clock. The direction in which the clock hands rotate is called CW (clockwise).
CW- Clockwise ( refers to rotation in the same direction as that of a clock. The opposite direction is called CCW (counterclockwise).
The letters R or L denote the propeller’s rotational direction.
- R = Right or Clockwise direction (CW)
- L = Left or Counter-Clockwise direction (CCW)
Here are a few links to get you started:
- RCGroups (Community)
- The UAV Coach community forum (forum)
- DJI’s official forum (forum)
- Commercial sUAS Remote Pilots (Facebook group)
The awesome community will be more than willing to help you 🙂
Assembly & Build a Drone
The Quadcopter frame made of Carbon, Wood, Metal, Plastic. I am using f450 frame because i have not too much budget for expensive Drone. Lets assemble
Firstly take F450 Quadcopter Frame And Assemble it. As Shown in the image
Connect the Motors to the Frame
Soldering ESCs To PDB
Secondly you need to solder ESC’s to the power distribution board Finally solder the red (positive +) and black (negative -) wires of all ESCs to the power distribution board to the specific + and – points .
Soldering The ESCs clearly and strongly To The PDB (Power distribution board)
Connecting the Motors to the ESCs
Three wires coming out of the ESC and that’s the signal line,+5V and ground, Connect all the 3 wires of esc’s to the 3 wires of motors (directly, means middle to middle , right to right, left to left). Use The Zip ties To Hold The ESC in The Arms.
Preparing the Flight Controller
Before mounting the flight controller on frame, i suggest you to mount the anti vibration damping plate to the frame with a double sided tape. It absorbs vibration, the center supported plate is ideal for sensitive electronics components.
Mount the Flight controller on the vibration damping plate with a double sided tape and remember to point the forward sign(marked on apm) to the direction you want your Drone to move forward.
Connect All Components To Flight Controller
Wiring the ESC’S To Flight Controller
The APM is used as an example but other autopilots are connected in a similar way.
You would have four wires from all the esc’s.
- The first(front-right) esc goes to Pin 1 in the OUTPUT section.
- The second (back-left) esc goes to Pin 2 in the OUTPUT section.
- The thrid (front-left) esc goes to Pin 3 in the OUTPUT section.
- The fourth(back-right) goes to Pin 4 in the OUTPUT section.
- Top left = Clockwise
- Top right = Counter-Clockwise
- Bottom right = Clockwise
- Bottom left = Counter-Clockwise