What is the voltage?
An electric current is a flow of electrons through a conductive material (such as copper wire). Since we cannot see electrons, it helps to have a model or analogy of electrical circuits to help us better understand circuits. Water flowing through pipes is a good mechanical system that looks a lot like an electrical circuit.
We can compare the motion of water flowing through a water pipe to the motion of electrons flowing through a conductor, that is, the flow of electric current. What flows in the pipe is water, whereas electrons flow through the conductor. A pressure difference is absolutely necessary for water to flow through the water pipe. For example, water should be pumped with a water pump so that the water can flow through the pipe. Similarly, a force is absolutely required for current to flow through the electrical circuit. Without this force, free electrons cannot move, that is, no electric current flows. We call the force that moves the electrons, the Voltage. The unit of intensity of voltage is called Volt .
What is resistance?
Continuing with the water pipe example; The wider the pipe, the more water will flow, and the narrower the pipe, the less it will flow. We can liken the resistance to the pipe here. With the voltage applied to the circuit, it encounters some difficulties on the way it follows until the current reaches from one end to the other. These difficulties are the forces that affect the passage of electrons. These forces are called Resistance. The unit of resistance is Ohm.
- It provides protection of sensitive structured circuit elements against over current.
- Each circuit element operates in certain voltage ranges, can withstand or require certain currents.
- It keeps the same value by limiting the current passing through the circuit.
- It helps other elements to work by dividing the supply voltage of the circuit.
What is current?
It is the amount of free electrons that pass through a conductive body. Electric current is the flow of free electrons through conductive material. The unit of intensity of electric current is called Ampere . In order for electric current to flow through a circuit, that circuit must be a closed circuit. If the circuit is open, no electric current flows because free electrons cannot pass through the air.
Electronic Circuit Elements
Structure of Breadboard
LED (Light Emitting Diode) is one of the most basic semiconductor, diode-based, light-emitting electronic circuit elements. Because it is diode-based, it only passes direct current in one direction:
From anode (+) to cathode (-). Long leg is called Anode (+), short leg is called Cathode (-). These legs do not work when they are tied upside down. We must use the LEDs together with resistors on the circuit to protect them from the high current that will pass over them. Otherwise, they will deteriorate due to excessive current flowing over them. The light intensity of the LED is directly proportional to the current flowing through it. However, this increase; it is linear up to a certain value of the current. If the current supplied to the LED exceeds this value, it will deteriorate by overheating.
Unlike normal LEDs, RGB LEDs contain 3 different colors (red, green and blue) in a single structure. Although LEDs have anode and cathode ends, anode (+) or cathode (-) connections are common in RGB LEDs depending on the type of production.
Calculating Resistance Value
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They are tiny speakers that make different beeps according to the current passing through them. Almost every sound has its own note. Each note also has a specific frequency. The higher the frequency, the sharper the sounds produced.
Potentiometer is a type of resistance. The biggest difference from other types of resistance is that the resistance value can be changed. The potentiometer is generally three legged. Two of these legs are fixed in the internal structure, but the third leg is movable in the internal structure. Thanks to this moving structure, it becomes possible to get a varying voltage output from two fixed legs.
LDR Light Sensor