Basic Electronics


What is the voltage?The Super Human From India Immune to High Voltage Electric Current, Raj  Mohan Nair

An electric current is a flow of electrons through a conductive material (such as copper wire). Since we cannot see electrons, it helps to have a model or analogy of electrical circuits to help us better understand circuits. Water flowing through pipes is a good mechanical system that looks a lot like an electrical circuit.

We can compare the motion of water flowing through a water pipe to the motion of electrons flowing through a conductor, that is, the flow of electric current. What flows in the pipe is water, whereas electrons flow through the conductor. A pressure difference is absolutely necessary for water to flow through the water pipe. For example, water should be pumped with a water pump so that the water can flow through the pipe. Similarly, a force is absolutely required for current to flow through the electrical circuit. Without this force, free electrons cannot move, that is, no electric current flows. We call the force that moves the electrons, the Voltage. The unit of intensity of voltage is called Volt . 

What is resistance?

Continuing with the water pipe example; The wider the pipe, the more water will flow, and the narrower the pipe, the less it will flow. We can liken the resistance to the pipe here. With the voltage applied to the circuit, it encounters some difficulties on the way it follows until the current reaches from one end to the other. These difficulties are the forces that affect the passage of electrons. These forces are called Resistance. The unit of resistance is Ohm.


  • It provides protection of sensitive structured circuit elements against over current.
  • Each circuit element operates in certain voltage ranges, can withstand or require certain currents.
  • It keeps the same value by limiting the current passing through the circuit.
  • It helps other elements to work by dividing the supply voltage of the circuit.

What is current?

It is the amount of free electrons that pass through a conductive body. Electric current is the flow of free electrons through conductive material. The unit of intensity of electric current is called Ampere . In order for electric current to flow through a circuit, that circuit must be a closed circuit. If the circuit is open, no electric current flows because free electrons cannot pass through the air.

Electronic Circuit Elements


In the project we will do, it is a circuit board that is made conductive between certain rows and columns, which helps us to create our circuit by easily placing the circuit elements. While producing projects with Arduino, our biggest assistant will be the breadboard. We can make our projects work by placing the electronic circuit elements properly without the need for soldering iron with the breadboard.
Breadboard diagram of a simple LED circuit

Structure of Breadboard

Breadboard contains interconnected conductive lines on it. (Shown in yellow). It consists of four different separated areas. The red and blue lines at the bottom and top, extending horizontally, are interconnected and are often used for tension connections. We can connect the + to the red line and the ground line to the blue line and then use the voltages we draw over these lines in other parts of our circuit. Each of the 5 pin groups in two different sections in the middle is also connected within itself. In other words, each pin extending along a vertical line in the form of a, b, c, d, e is connected to each other .
Drawing of a breadboard with all rows and columns highlighted in yellow

Jumper Cable

Smart Electronics Jump Wire Cable,Male to Male Flexible Jumper Wires for  arduino Breadboard,DIY Starter Kit 65pcs/lot|Wires & Cables| - AliExpress

We make the connections between our Arduino board and the electronic circuit elements in the circuit we will install with the help of these conductive cables. Although they are in many different colors, they have the same function. Generally, red is preferred for 5V and brown is preferred for GND. There are some structurally different cable types. There are three types with male and female entrances at the ends.


LED (Light Emitting Diode) is one of the most basic semiconductor, diode-based, light-emitting electronic circuit elements. Because it is diode-based, it only passes direct current in one direction:

American Medical Association warns of health and safety problems from  'white' LED streetlightsFrom anode (+) to cathode (-). Long leg is called Anode (+), short leg is called Cathode (-). These legs do not work when they are tied upside down. We must use the LEDs together with resistors on the circuit to protect them from the high current that will pass over them. Otherwise, they will deteriorate due to excessive current flowing over them. The light intensity of the LED is directly proportional to the current flowing through it. However, this increase; it is linear up to a certain value of the current. If the current supplied to the LED exceeds this value, it will deteriorate by overheating.



Electrobot 5mm RGB LED Diode Lights (Red Green Blue 4 pin Common Cathode  Clear DC 20mA/Color), 100 Pcs: Industrial & Scientific

Unlike normal LEDs, RGB LEDs contain 3 different colors (red, green and blue) in a single structure. Although LEDs have anode and cathode ends, anode (+) or cathode (-) connections are common in RGB LEDs depending on the type of production.



Resilience is literally difficulty against something. Circuit element resistance; It allows u10 ohm Resistance Pack-1/2 Watt | Eveltas to limit the current by creating a difficulty against the current in the circuit. In other words, it helps us protect the circuit elements from high current. Otherwise, our circuit elements may be damaged. Different values ​​of resistors are available. We can understand these values ​​by looking at their colors on the resistor. Let’s take a look at the spreadsheet below.

Electronic Spices Mini 5V Buzzer-5 Pcs: Electronics



They are tiny speakers that make different beeps according to the current passing through them. Almost every sound has its own note. Each note also has a specific frequency. The higher the frequency, the sharper the sounds produced.



Elcon India Potentiometers Rotary Master Vol 10k 47k 100k with PCB (10 K  Single): Industrial & Scientific


Potentiometer is a type of resistance. The biggest difference from other types of resistance is that the resistance value can be changed. The potentiometer is generally three legged. Two of these legs are fixed in the internal structure, but the third leg is movable in the internal structure. Thanks to this moving structure, it becomes possible to get a varying voltage output from two fixed legs.


LDR Light Sensor

LDR Photoresistor Photo Light Sensitive Resistor Light Dependent Resistor  at Rs 25/piece | Tihar Village | Delhi| ID: 21105369062LDR (Light Dependent Resistance) is an optical sensor that can adjust the resistance value inversely according to the intensity of the light in the environment. LDRs are resistors whose value changes depending on the light intensity. The increase in the light intensity causes the resistance value to decrease, and the decrease in the light intensity causes the resistance value to increase.




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