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DiY Mini Laser Engraver Machine

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This is a very interesting project for any electronics hobbyist & Engineers . This engraver will be able to engrave cardboard, wood, vinyl stickers etc.




Introduction!

Hi Friends Welcome to the DiY Projects Lab, I hope you all are well, so today we are going to learn how to make your own DiY Mini Laser Engraver Machine . Arduino based Laser CNC engraver for very cheap using old DVD drives and using 250mW laser module .

It is a prototype module, but once you build it you will definitely be able to build a very large Laser engraver machine and with much higher accuracy. The principle will be the same, we will use DVD Writers Stepper Motors to control the movement of 3 axis of CNC machine.

What Is CNC ?

CNC (computer numerical control)  The system is based on the control of the movements of the work tool in relation to the coordinate axis of the machine, using a computer program benbox  executed by a computer.it is necessary to control the movements of the tool in two coordinate axis: the X axis for the longitudinal movements of the carriage and the Z axis for the transverse movements of the tower.



      AXIS MOVEMENTS

  • X axis – left to right
  • Y axis – front to back
  • Z axis – up and down

       3 Axis Machine

  • Automatic/interactive operation
  • Milling slots
  • Drilling holes
  • Cutting sharp edges

 Parts and Materials Required

  1. Arduino UNO (with USB cable)
  2. 2x DVD drive stepper mechanism
  3. 2x A4988 stepper motor driver modules (or CNC shield)
  4. 250mW Laser with adjustable lens
  5. 12v 2Amps power supply minimum
  6. 1x IRFZ44N N-CHANNEL Mosfet ,etc..

  DVD Drive Stepper Mechnaism

 

Two DVD driver are required, one for the X-Axis and the second for the Y-axis. You can find DVD drive from broken CPU or local hardware shop.

  • Use Philips head screwdriver to remove all screw.
  • Unplugged all the connectors and cables from dvd drive .
  • Open the disk holder and unscrew the sliding mechanis.
  • Detached the Sliding mechanism.
           The stepper motors are 4-pin Bipolar Stepper Motor.

What is  Stepper motor ?

The stepper motor is an electromechanical device that converts a series of electrical impulses into discrete angular displacements, which means that it is capable of advancing a series of step depending on its control inputs.   The stepper motor behaves in the same way as a digital-to-analog (D / A) converter and can be driven by pulses from logic systems. Its main applications include a variable frequency motor, brushless DC motor,

Motor type: 2-phase 4-wire system
Step angel: 18°
Voltage: 5V
Resistance: 14Ω
Phase: 2 – 2
Drive mode: Bipolar
Max.starting frequency: 900pps
Max.slew speed: 1200pps
Holding torque: 40
Lead screw major diameter: Φ3
Lead screw lead pitch: 3
Size of motor outer diameter: 15mm

             Stepper Motor Working Principles

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4 pins be a bipolar stepper motor. Two pins per coil ( two coils in series, but seen as one coil), two coils (or coil pairs)



Wiring of Stepper Motors

Using continuity mode with  Multimeter determine

determine 2 Coil, Coil A and Coil B.

I made 2 pairs of wire by selecting colours, one pair for the Coil A and second for the Coil B.

Soldered them and used heat shrink tube on it.

 

 X-axis and Y-axis co-ordinates movement.

I’ve attached the slider of X and Y-axis together in perpendicular to each other, using glue between them. And also attached a cut wood piece  above it as a working bed.



 Assemble The Laser holder

       I have used Wood for  holders. These are quite easy and fun.  In the laser holder

Laser Assembly

The laser I  used is Laser Module 200-250mW 650nm , It has focusable lens for the adjustment of laser dot

Laser

Attach the laser with holder

The Electronics

connect motor & laser wire to CNC shield

NextPCB PCB Manufacturers Company 

 

1st Thanks NextPCB  for sponsor this project. Nextpcb offer  For New Customer, Your First Order Will Be 10 PCBs for just $0 at Free.

NextPCB   one of the world’s most professional PCB manufacturers based in China. With professional PCB manufacturing capabilities, for each file of our customer will be double-checked by more than 14 years PCB engineers. they handle the whole process of PCBs including the PCB assembly ,PCB manufacturing, testing and final shipment.

Download and Install Benbox

Install Benbox Laser Engraver

1. Download and unzip Benbox 

2. Select Benbox  and run the setup wizard

3. Download and install the Arduino IDE. https://www.arduino.cc/en/Main/software

4. Click and install CH340G driver.

5. Restart computer

6. Connect the USB cable between computer and Shield.

Install Firmware for Arduino Nano

install the firmware, click on the lightning symbol at the top of the menu .

1. Select the appropriate com port.

2. Select nano(328p).

3. Select and install the Lx.Hex firmware.

5. Click install. When the firmware has installed successfully, you will see a green check mark beside the update firmware title at the top .

Setup the Benbox Laser Engraver Parameters

The last step is to set up the parameters for the engraver.

1. Click on the blue menu icon at the top right-hand corner of the software.

2. Click on the right arrow underneath the menu icon to access the parameter list.

3. Enter the parameters’ values as depicted in the photo.

Making Your First Engraving

  • This starting spot will correlate to the red arc at the (0,0) position (refer to image).
  •  Draw an simple image using the drawing tools on the left.
  • Press the green start button to start the print.
  •  Click the circular laser button with  adjust until the beam is sharp.

Congratulation successfully making your first engraving machine




 

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